Liver spots

Liver spots are dark spots that generally occur to people with ages greater than 40.These spots occur due to aging and exposure to ultraviolet rays through sun.They are generally black, brown or red in color.
The name is a misnomer and got from the fact that earlier it was thought to be caused by liver.

Venous insufficiency

By:Satyendra jainDate:2015-08-08
Venous insufficiency is a condition in which the flow of blood through the veins is impaired. Venous insufficiency can be caused by a number of disorders of the veins, particularly deep vein thrombosis (blood clot) or varicose veins.
In healthy veins, there is continuous flow of blood from the limbs back toward the heart. There are valves within the veins of the legs that prevent the back flow of blood. Venous insufficiency occurs when forward flow through the veins is obstructed, as in the case of a blood clot, or if there is backward leakage of blood flow through damaged valves. In many cases of venous insufficiency, patients have both obstruction of forward flow and backward leakage of the veins.

The most common causes of venous insufficiency are previous cases of blood clots and varicose veins. In some cases, weakness of the leg muscles that help squeeze blood forward may also contribute to venous insufficiency.

Diabetes and Constipation

By:Satyendra jainDate:2015-08-11
Diabetes is a disease in which the body either does not produce or is unable to use the hormone insulin properly. The pancreas produces insulin, which helps the body use sugar (glucose) from foods. If the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin, or if the body cannot use the insulin properly, blood sugar levels rise and the body cannot use foods effectively. High blood sugar levels are harmful to many body tissues.
Constipation is the most common gastrointestinal problem of people with diabetes. Diarrhea that occurs at night is also common. The nerves of the intestines control how long solid food waste remains in the intestines. If these nerves have been damaged by high blood sugar levels, food and waste products may move through the intestines too slowly, causing constipation or too quickly, causing diarrhea. Damage to the intestinal nerves usually does not occur unless you have had type 1 diabetes that requires treatment with insulin for many years.
If you have diabetes, discuss any problems that you are having with either constipation or diarrhea with your doctor. Both conditions can be easily treated with medicine.

What is cholesterol. How it affects your body.

Cholesterol is one of the main sterols of the human body. Sterols are natural fats that are produced in the body by the body itself or by the external means, such as food.
Liver is considered as the main producer of cholesterol in human body. But some other body parts like intestine, adrenal cortex, or reproductive glands are also agents that produce cholesterol.
Normally diet intake is one of the major reasons for high level of cholesterol in human body, but since cholesterol is also produced by body itself so it is possible that genetic metabolic disorder may also lead to high level of cholesterol.
Just because nothing in human body is without reason similarly cholesterol is also needed by human body. They form cell membrane, bile acids and steroid harmones, but excess level of cholesterol, specifically in blood, forms plaque, that may thicken the walls of the arteries. This causes atheroclerosis, a conditions in which the arteries that carry blood and oxygen to the brain and other part of bodies become narrower and blocked. The arteries become much narrow and hard and makes the blood flow very difficult. It may lead to stroke or heart attack.

Tests for high cholesterol:
Cholesterol level is usually tested through performing a specific type of blood test known as lipid test or lipid panel. It is normally recommended that the person should not drink any thing apart from water for 9 hours before the test.
Lipid panel yields 4 numbers, namely, Total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride. Here LDL and HDL stands for low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein. Lipoprotein, as the name suggests are the proteins that are responsible to make cholesterol soluble and break it into vitamin k. LDL are known to be negative and hence minimizing it is considered good. Whereas HDL is considered to be good and it should be elevated. Triglyceride is the total amount of fat precent in human body.
A normal HDL level would be 40 and 49 mg per dl for men and 50 to 60 mg/dl for women. Any score below 40 mg/dl for men and 50 mg per dl for women would be a threat. Remember, hdl scores should be high for better conditions. If it is above 60 mg per dl then it gives you better defense towards heart diseases.
Similarly LDL(low density lipoprotein level), which is also known as bad cholesterol level should be less. LDL level below 100 mg per dl is best, between 100 and 129 mg per dl is average, while if it is above 130 mg/dl then this means that threshold is crossed. LDL level above 190 mg/dl is very risky. Above 190 mg/ dl you will have very high chances of heart attack or brain stroke. LDL level below 70 mg/dl is highly advisable.